DNA analysis is the study of genetic material present in humans or any other species. Every human being has 23 sets of chromosomes. Of which, 22 are autosomes and remaining are either X or Y chromosomes. Women have an XX combination while males possess the XY combination. DNA is existent in all cells of humans; right from skin, blood to hair. Hence, it can be shed during committing crime, or can be tested to find matches. It is a relatively new field for making use of genetic material for establishing offspring-parent relationship or investigating a crime scene.DNA Test Cost in Various Indian Cities
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DNA test is conducted by rubbing a person's cheek from inside for collecting Buccal cells which are then sent to laboratories. For paternity related tests, samples are collected from the child and alleged father. DNA testing also can be done with the help of samples of hair, skin, blood, semen etc.
DNA samples collected from above mentioned human tissues are sent to a laboratory for testing. Results are accordingly generated. The cells in these tissues are broken down for segregating proteins and fats. In this way, the DNA particles are separated from the fats and proteins in the sample. Different methods are put to use for studying and analyzing the DNA samples for producing results. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Analysis, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) are few analytical methods for DNA sampling.
As mentioned before, these DNA tests are an accurate and powerful tool to establish if any individual is a biological parent of some child and vice versa. It is also useful for forensic testing to identify victims or suspects during criminal investigations. Criminals can be thus implicated or absolved in the court of law through DNA testing.
The results obtained from a DNA test are considered as legal evidence for parental rights, child support, social benefits, adoption, inheritance claims, and immigration etc., when proof related to blood relationship is necessitated. Likewise, DNA tests are also useful for diagnosing possible genetic disorders like Down Syndrome in fetus when it is in the womb. It can also be used for predicting possibility of a certain disorder or disease because of hereditary factors and family history of the same. Additionally, the person can plan out a fitness routine for themselves, if they know they are on the likelier end of contracting a certain disease.