As this surgery is a complex procedure, some kind of general anesthesia is induced in the body before the operation. This process requires the surgeon to cut in the breastbone to make way to the aorta chamber. Since it is an open heart surgery, the patient is connected to an artificial heart (lung bypass machine or pump to compensate for the heart). The damaged valves get replaced with materials made of stainless steel, titanium and ceramic material according to availability and suitability.
Some time, human and animal tissues are also used by many surgeons for patients of considerable age. The difference between these two cases is that; metal valves last for longer years as compared to biological valves. However, here patients require to take some blood thinner medicines such as aspirin throughout their lives. Biological valves remain functional for 12-15 years and do not require any blood-thinning medicines.
Pulmonic valves are also sometimes used for this replacement; that in turn, requires to be replaced artificially.
This surgery assures better functioning of your heart that results in healthy and prolonged life span. It reduces heart strokes and other fatal health conditions related to heart.