Vaccination Chart for Babies in India

Childhood is a period of learning the ways of life, for parents and children alike. Health of young children is more vulnerable in comparison to adults. This happens because they have not developed a strong immunity yet. This makes them more likely to fall ill with allergies, infections etc.

Illness stimulates the immune system to develop a healthy defence against various harmful influences. However, this does not imply that diseases should be allowed to run rampant. It is necessary to protect young children from developing disorders which could compromise their health on a permanent basis. Defending their health from harmful disorders is most important. The first step towards this is providing proper vaccination to babies right from birth.National Immunization Schedule

The National Immunization Schedule is a venture initiated by the health ministry. This schedule provides a detailed chart of all vaccinations required from birth till the age of 18 years. The name of vaccine, diseases it helps to fight against, mode of administration and the age at which each vaccine should be administered, are some details mentioned in this chart. Timely vaccination is one of the best ways to develop a strong immunity.

Several vaccines are administered to children from birth till the age of 18 years. These vaccines have to be given at a specific age only, to have the desired effect on the child’s immune system. Given below are details of all vaccines included in the National Immunization Schedule. This schedule is approved by Health Ministry of India. All vaccines mentioned in the schedule are mandatory as per regulations of the Health Ministry.

  • At Birth

The first vaccine to be given soon after birth is B.C.G (Bacillus-Calmette Guerin). It acts as a protective shield against the deadly tuberculosis infection. Calmette and Guerin are the names of scientists who developed this vaccine. It is injected into the skin of the left forearm on the outer side only. It is advisable to administer BCG within the first few hours of the child’s birth.

At Birth

Along with BCG injection, the first oral dose of polio vaccine and first injection of Hepatitis B, are also administered at birth. Hepatitis B injection is administered on the muscles of thigh only and at no other site. Local swelling and redness at the site of injection is the most common complication of both the injectable vaccines. These symptoms subside within no time.

  • 6 weeks of Age

The second vaccination after B.C.G, polio dose, and hepatitis B injection, is given at 6 weeks of age. The first dose of injectable pentavalent vaccine is given when the baby turns 6 weeks old / 1 and a half months old. The five diseases against which this vaccine offers protection include Diphtheria, Whooping Cough, Tetanus, Hepatitis B, and Influenza.6 weeks of Age

All of these are infectious disorders caused by deadly virus and bacteria. Except Hepatitis B and Tetanus, the other 3 disorders are highly contagious. Their contagious nature makes is difficult to contain them and therefore, it is important to vaccinate infants against these diseases.

The first dose of injectable polio vaccine is also given along with pentavalent vaccine. It is mandatory to administer Pentavalent and Polio vaccines to all children once they turn 6 weeks old. In some States of India, it is also mandatory to administer rotavirus vaccine. This vaccine offers protection against viral diarrhoea which can have a strenuous effect on the infant’s health.

  • 10 weeks of Age

A dose of pentavalent vaccine is repeated before the child turns 3 months old. This is known as a booster dose as it enhances the effect of a vaccine which has been previously administered. Infants who have received the first dose of rotavirus vaccine, need to be given a booster dose for the same.

  • 14 weeks of Age

Once the baby turns 3 months old, another dose of Pentavalent vaccine is given. 2nd booster dose of rotavirus is given along with Pentavalent vaccine to those children who have received previous doses. The first booster dose of injectable polio vaccine is mentioned in the immunization schedule at the age of 14 weeks.

Most injectable vaccines lead to swelling and pain at the site of injection. Children may suffer from temporary discomfort due to this. However, these symptoms subside with time and do not cause any long lasting health issues.

  • 9-12 months of Age

Children are given vaccination against infections like, Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Japanese Encephalitis for the first time when they are nearing one year of age. Both vaccinations are administered in the form of subcutaneous injections. Japanese encephalitis is mandatory only in regions where the condition is endemic.

9-12 months of Age

Children of this age group are given the first oral dose of Vitamin A in order to avoid deficiency of this particular nutrient. Despite this supplement, parents should ensure that they include foods rich in Vitamin A in their children’s diet. Consuming foods that are naturally rich in Vitamin A, is a better way of avoiding Vitamin A deficiency.

By the time a child turns 1 year old, he/she has been administered with all the vaccines mentioned in the national immunization schedule at least once. From 1 year of age till 18 years of age, repeated doses of these vaccines are administered. They serve as booster doses which enhance the action of previously given doses of the same vaccine. Booster doses of Japanese Encephalitis vaccine are given only to those children who have been given the first dose of the vaccine.

  • 16-24 months

3 out of the five vaccines included in the pentavalent vaccine are repeated before the child turns 2 years old. These vaccines are combined into a single injectable dose known as D.P.T (Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus). It is an intramuscular injection administered into the thigh. Some toddlers may experience fever, pain and discomfort after the vaccine.

A booster dose of oral polio vaccine is also given to children of this age group. Another booster dose administered during this period includes injectable vaccine of M.M.R (Mumps, Measles, Rubella). Children staying in endemic regions are also vaccinated against Japanese Encephalitis.

The first booster dose of Vitamin A is to be given orally before the child turns 2 years old. Along with this oral dose, children should also receive a healthy diet that is rich in Vitamin A.

  • 2-5 years of age

From the age of 2-5 years, children are to be administered with booster doses of Vitamin A supplement. The dose is administered every 6 months in oral form.

Vaccination continues till the age of 18 years. It primarily comprises of booster doses of tetanus vaccine, diphtheria vaccine and measles vaccine. Due to advancement in medical research, newer vaccines are tested and introduced into the market every year. Teenage females can now be vaccinated during their childhood so that they do not get affected with life threatening infections like measles later during their pregnancy.

2-5 years of age

Many people argue that children should be allowed to develop their immunity naturally without vaccinating them. While this is true to some extent, one simply cannot risk exposing infants and young children to infections as serious as Japanese Encephalitis or measles. Simple viral flu, seasonal cold and cough, do not require vaccination and in fact help children in building a healthier immunity. However, the same cannot be said about infections that can have fatal outcome.

A debate on pros and cons of vaccination has stirred up a lot of controversies lately. While some parents prefer to stick to the old school ideology of vaccinating their children, some parents have started taking the ‘no vaccination’ approach. There is adequate research to support the usefulness of vaccinating children. However, research on the disadvantages of vaccination is still in a nascent stage. Therefore, not much tangible proof exists on the adverse effects of vaccination.

It is unwise to reach a decision of vaccinating or not vaccinating young children without consulting with a pediatrician.

Top 5 Most Searched Medical Specialists in India

Owing to constant research and advanced studies in the field of medicine, a diversification has occurred in the techniques of medical practice. The concept of ‘family doctors’ is slowly fading away, as people have started becoming more aware of various health issues and the medical specialties which cover these issues. Patients prefer visiting the specialist doctor directly, rather than being referred to him/her by a physician.

Medical Specialists

Specialist doctors are those who have additional qualification in dealing with health issues pertaining exclusively to certain body parts or systems. With additional post graduate training after completing basic medical graduation, these doctors opt to pursue their preferred medical specialty. A huge number of medical and surgical specialties have cropped up over the past few decades. Though all of them are in great demand, some are sought after, more than the others.

This may happen because disorders pertaining to that specialty occur more commonly. Given below are details of the top 5 medical specialists who are the most sought after by Indian patients.

Dentist

Dentists specialize solely in the diagnosis and treatment of problems related to teeth, gums and jaw bones. Contrary to common belief, dentists do a lot more than just maintaining health of teeth. It is their job to ensure that along with the health of teeth, the patient is also educated about importance of dental hygiene.

Dentist

People of every age group rely on the expertise of a dentist for various health issues. Right from dentition in infants, to artificial denture in elderly patients, a dentist guides with his/her expert advice all the way. Dentition troubles, faulty alignment of permanent teeth, tooth decay, impacted wisdom tooth, are some common problems with which people visit a dentist.

Dentists specializing in maxillo-facial surgery have expertise in treatment of jaw fractures, congenital anomaly of jaw, issues affecting maxillary tissue, and they also perform facial reconstruction surgery. Maxillofacial specialists also tend to have expertise in treating cancerous tumors affecting the jaws and surrounding areas.

Some dentists having expertise in cosmetology perform dental procedures like smile designing, fitting dental braces, bridges etc. Cosmetic dental procedures include all surgical and medical procedures which enhance a patient’s appearance by altering their dental alignment. People working in the showbiz industry often consult dentists for procedures like teeth whitening. This branch of dentistry is in great demand among celebrities, T.V. personalities and common folk alike.

Conditions like trismus, hemorrhage from the gums, dislocation of jaw etc., are medical emergencies which only a dental surgeon can manage efficiently. The basic qualification required to be a practising dentist in India is B.D.S (Bachelor of Dental Surgery). Specialization can be done in various fields like endodontics, periodontics, maxillofacial surgery etc., by pursuing M.D.S (Masters in Dental Surgery).

Dentists may have their individual private practice or may be associated with a hospital.

Pediatrician

Treating patients without getting any symptoms from them is a tough task; something which pediatricians master well through years of practical experience. Pediatricians are doctors specializing in diagnosis and treatment of children’s health disorders. Children between the age of 0-18 years are eligible to be under medical care of a pediatrician.

Pediatrician

Every new born baby receives detailed medical attention from a pediatrician soon after birth. A general physical examination and checking for any congenital issues is done by pediatricians as soon as infants are born.

Right from a child’s birth, pediatricians guide parents about normal medical care, vaccination, nutritional counseling, physical and mental development of the child. Pediatricians specialize in diagnosis and treatment of allergies and infections affecting small children. Apart from treating such disorders, pediatricians also monitor growth and development in small children at regular intervals.

Pediatricians specializing exclusively in the care of new born babies are known as neonatologists. These doctors have expertise in providing medical care, including life supporting techniques to new born infants. Neonatologists are the first doctors who attend to prematurely born babies.

Pediatricians are closely associated with N.I.C.U facility reserved exclusively for new born babies and children. They are usually associated with hospitals or have their own private practice. The basic qualification required to become a pediatrician in India includes M.D or D.N.B degree in Pediatrics. Only those doctors who have completed M.B.B.S are eligible to apply for these post graduate courses.

E.N.T Specialist

E.N.T surgeons are doctors specializing in diagnosis and treatment of disorders exclusive to ears, nose and throat. The most common disorders for which people consult with an E.N.T doctor include tonsil troubles, ear infection, adenoids, nasal polyp, deviated nasal septum. E.N.T surgeons are well qualified to perform minor medical procedures like ear wax removal, audiometry, on outpatient basis.

ENT Specialist

E.N.T surgeons also perform more complicated surgeries like cochlear implant, thyroid cancer surgery, skull base surgery etc. Medical treatment for disorders like rhinitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, is part of therapy provided by E.N.T doctors.

Small children, adults and elderly people alike, may require the medical expertise of an E.N.T specialist at some point in life. E.N.T specialists often have their own private practice or may be associated with a multispecialty hospital.

E.N.T specialists may work in conjunction with a speech therapist and audiologist. In order to practise as an E.N.T specialist, doctors have to complete their M.S, which is a post graduate course in E.N.T. Alternatively, another post graduate course known as D.N.B may also be pursued. Completing M.B.B.S from a recognized college in India is a pre-requisite for both these courses.

Cardiologist

Cardiologists are easily one of the most sought after doctors in India. They deal exclusively with disorders of the heart. Atherosclerosis, chest pain, hypertension, myocardial ischemia, are some of the cases for which cardiologists are most commonly consulted. Cardiologists only deal with the medical aspect of heart disorders. They do not perform cardiac surgeries. However, they are trained to perform specific diagnostic procedures pertaining to the heart. These procedures have been highlighted later in this article.

Cardiologist

Cardiologists are highly efficient in management of emergency cases requiring immediate medical or surgical attention. Part of their job also includes performing cardiology diagnostic procedures like angiography, ECG, 2D-Echo, cardiac catheterisation etc. Cardiologists are trained in performing medical procedures like angioplasty on outpatient basis. Patients are also required to consult a cardiologist before and after undergoing cardiac surgery like coronary bypass, heart transplant, valve replacement etc. They often work in conjunction with rheumatologists while treating patients experiencing rheumatic heart ailments due to some other pre-existing rheumatic condition.

Special training is required to treat cardiac disorders affecting new born babies and small children. Doctors who have completed M.B.B.S are eligible to pursue M.D or D.N.B in Cardiology in order to practise as a Cardiologist.

Cardiologists work in association with hospitals or have their private clinics. They are closely associated with the functioning of I.C.U facilities reserved exclusively for heart patients.

Gastroenterologist

A Gastroenterologist is a doctor specializing in diagnosis and treatment of disorders pertaining to the digestive tract. Acid peptic disease, peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, are some conditions for which treatment expertise of a gastroenterologist is needed. Gastroenterologists are often consulted for treatment of intestinal cancers which do not require surgical intervention. Doctors who study gastroenterology may also continue specialization to achieve expertise in treatment of liver and biliary tract disorders.

Gastroenterologist

G.I tract infections like typhoid, cholera, hepatitis virus infection, are also treated by gastroenterologists. They are trained in performing diagnostic procedures like endoscopy, colonoscopy, capsule endoscopy etc., on an outpatient basis.

Gastroenterologists also handle more complicated cases like Crohn’s disease, intestinal hemorrhage etc. Patients who undergo surgery of digestive tract need to consult with a gastroenterologist for pre and post-operative medical treatment. Gastroenterologists are trained to perform medical treatment of intestinal and biliary disorders. They do not perform digestive tract surgeries.

Doctors who have completed M.B.B.S are eligible to study M.D or D.N.B in gastroenterology in order to practise as a Gastroenterologist.

All of the above mentioned medical specialists have to be registered practitioners of the Indian Medical Association. Their licenses are duly renewed at regular intervals. Their practice ethics are under strict control of the local health department. Violation of any rules set by government authorities could lead to loss of rights to practice medicine. All doctors are bound by rules of doctor-patient confidentiality. They cannot reveal details about their patients under any circumstances, unless ordered to do so by any legitimate figure of authority.

Other medical and surgical specialists whose expertise is often required include orthopedic surgeons, dermatologists, gynecologists, ophthalmologists, neurologists, oncologists, plastic surgeons, psychiatrists etc.

All You Need To Know About Aquatic Therapy

Exercises and treatments performed in water for relaxation, therapeutic benefits, fitness and physical rehabilitation is termed as aquatic therapy. Usually done in a pool or any aquatic environment, it is done under the guidance of a trained healthcare professional like an aquatic therapist. These treatments and exercises are performed while floating or while being partially or fully submerged into the water.

Aquatic Therapy
Many aquatic therapies are also performed in temperature-controlled pools. Rehabilitation mainly focuses on the issues associated with injuries, illness or disabilities. Physical therapy involving water is extremely beneficial to people suffering from neuromuscular or musculoskeletal disorders.

For centuries, water has been used as a therapeutic alternative in healing people suffering from various health issues, because of the healing capabilities that water possesses. This therapeutic use of water is termed as aquatic therapy. Although hydrotherapy uses water for therapeutic benefits, there is a vast difference between hydrotherapy and aquatic therapy.

Aquatic therapy includes a wide range of techniques and methods consisting of aquatic exercises, physical therapy, aquatic bodywork, and hydrokinesiotherapy, the movement based therapy in water.

Aquatic therapy programs have certain goals to achieve and these include:

  1. Balance and co-ordination improvement
  2. Increase in flexibility
  3. Strengthening
  4. Increase in muscle strength and endurance
  5. Reduced spasticity
  6. Assistance with locomotion and stride
  7. More relaxation and less stress
  8. Reduction in joint swelling and pain
  9. Increase in range of motion
  10. Increased tolerance to sitting and standing

Aquatic therapy is usually performed under the guidance of the therapist who helps in assisting in the exercises and is termed as passive treatment. However, it can also be performed on your own with self-generated and controlled movements, and exercises, termed as active treatment. Such techniques include Ai Chi, Aqua Running, Bad Ragaz Ring Method, Burdenko method, Halliwick concept and Watsu.

For a long time, it has been believed that water promotes healing and has been used in a variety of treatments for managing the ailments along with other treatments. The therapeutic application of water includes neurological disorders, cardiopulmonary problems, spine pain, musculoskeletal disorders, orthopedic disorders, pediatric disabilities etc. It is also beneficial for obese people as it helps them perform exercises that are difficult to perform on land.

Aquatic therapy has different variations which helps the therapists create treatment plans and exercise schedules according to individual needs and conditions. Such specific treatment plans help the patients mentally, emotionally and makes them stronger, thereby improving their overall quality of life.

History of Aquatic Therapy

Water has been used as a healing element for a very long period of time. Over the time, several other terms have been coined for this therapy such as hydrotherapy, aquatic exercise, water therapy, water gymnastics, aquatic rehabilitation, aqua therapy, pool therapy etc. Water has been used for a numerous remedial purposes.

The use of water as a therapy, aquatic therapy, dates back to the early 2400 BC, when the people in Asia and Greece immersed themselves in water for religious and therapeutic purposes. The ancient Greek physician, Hippocrates, wrote about the healing properties of water and bathing in spring water to alleviate illnesses. He used water both externally and internally to treat a variety of illnesses. By 1500 BC, fevers were treated with water therapy. Ancient Greeks knew all the benefits of water, especially for healing muscle and joint pains.

Ancient Egyptians enjoyed bathing in their sacred river, Nile. Romans, following Greeks, considered bathing as a regime for good health. They built recuperation centers for wounded soldiers. Fatigued and injured from the war, the Roman soldiers used natural spring water to relax their muscles and treat sore wounds.

As time progressed, the use of water in therapy increased. In 800 BC Bath, England, known for its natural hot water springs, became famous as a center for healing through bathing. In the 1700s however, hydrotherapy developed by a German doctor Sigmund Hahn, came into existence. During this time, cold water was used to treat small pox victims. Vincent Priessnitz, in 1830, combined cold water and a rigorous exercise regimen to help sick people gain strength. This lead to the start of research on water, it’s temperature, and its reaction to certain diseases in Europe.

Over the course of several centuries, use of water therapy spread all over the world. New names were given, new methods and combinations were developed and new equipment were developed. Today, aquatic therapy is found in every sports center and facility. It helps in improving balance, co-ordination, muscle strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, pain management, motor skills and control, range of motion, and circulation.

Principles of Aquatic Therapy

The physical properties of water contribute to therapeutic effects.

Buoyancy permits floatation and reduces the effect of gravity. This allows people who cannot weight-bear on the land to put weight on their limbs in the water. Buoyancy has numerous benefits. It decreases joint compression forces, stress on connective tissues etc. It supports weak muscles, enhances flexibility and range of motion, and strengthens the muscles.Principles of Aquatic Therapy

Hydrostatic pressure is a force exerted on the body immersed in fluid. Hydrostatic pressure is beneficial in treating cardiovascular issues. The hydrostatic pressure pushes blood from the limbs towards the chest causing the heart to pump more blood and stretching of cardiac muscles. The stretching results in requiring a few heartbeats less than normal to pump the same amount of blood, thereby decreasing the patient’s heart rate while in water.

Routine aqua exercises can increase breathing capacity outside of water and increases efficiency of the heart. Similarly, hydrostatic pressure helps alleviate issues of renal system, respiratory system, and nervous system. Benefits of hydrostatic pressure are, reduction in pain and edema which in turn increase range of motion and increases blood circulation.

Viscosity provides resistance to water which increases as much as force is exerted against it. This helps in muscle strengthening. However, the resistance halts when the movements stop. It increases muscle balance and tone, and improves cardiopulmonary output. This resistance is especially helpful in people with Parkinson’s and cerebral palsy.

Aquatic Therapy Techniques

Ai Chi: Developed in 1993 by Jun Konno, Ai Chi is a total body relaxation and strengthening technique used in aquatic therapy. It uses deep breathing techniques inspired by Tai Chi and Qigong. This technique focuses on deep breathing and gradual movements of the upper and lower extremities, trunk and then the entire torso. The movements are slow, accompanied by deep diaphragmatic breathing and a calm state of mind.

Bad Ragaz Ring method: Developed in Bad Ragaz springs in eastern Switzerland by physiotherapists, it is a technique primarily focusing on improving neuromuscular functioning. Ring refers to the floats or rings that this method uses to support patients to be on surface of water. It involves a therapist acting as a fixed point, assisting the patient in their movements while the patient floats horizontally. The patient is guided through specific movements for muscular elongation and relaxation, and pain modulation with the ultimate goal of improving neuromuscular function, and active and passive range of motion.

Burdenko method: Developed by a Soviet professor, Igor Burdenko, this method focuses on six main aspects of movement. It is an integrated land-water sports therapy, mainly focusing on balance, co-ordination, strength, flexibility, endurance, and speed.

Halliwick concept: Developed in the late 1940s by fluid mechanics engineer, James McMillan, this technique focuses on the biophysical principle of motor control in water. This develops sense of balance and core stability. It mainly focuses on teaching swimming and independence in water to disabled patients. It has been used in neuro rehabilitation and pediatrics.

Watsu: Developed in the early 1980s by Harold Dull in California, this technique is used for deep relaxation and is a passive therapy. It is performed one-on-one in warm chest-deep water. The therapist gently cradles, moves, stretches, and massages a patient. The session consists of breathing co-ordination, movement patterns including stillness, gentle cradling, and stretching and mobilization, and massage depending upon the needs of the patient.

Aqua running: It is a form of water sport done in deep water using a support to float in the water. It involves running and jogging in the water. Helpful for injured athletes and people aiming for low impact aerobic workout. Aqua running or aqua jogging, conditions the cardiovascular system.

Benefits of Aquatic Therapy

Aquatic therapy is a unique form of physical therapy that assists the patient to slowly recover at a progressive pace that reduces the normal recovery time. Though aquatic therapy has been around for centuries, it is still progressing and developing new techniques to help patients recover. This form of physical therapy has variety of benefits. Some of which include improved balance and coordination, increased muscle strength, tone and endurance, cardiopulmonary endurance, improved motor skills and control, improvement in range of motion and circulatory function.Benefits of Aquatic Therapy

Benefits of this therapy are greatly experienced by people suffering from sensory disorders, muscle weakness, spasticity, incoordination, balance issues, orthopedic injuries, trauma, neurological problems, arthritis, respiratory problems, depression, cardiac issues and motor skill defects.

Aquatic therapy is specifically designed for therapeutic purposes and is typically used by people suffering from disorders, disabilities, or injuries. You don’t need to know how to swim if you want to undergo aquatic therapy. Indulging in this form of therapy helps you develop an ability to perform exercises and a sense of confidence that you have great endurance and flexibility.
This therapy provides a relaxing way to reconnect with your body after suffering from an illness and helps you recover faster. It helps reduce stress and pain and pushes you towards a healthier and improved way of living.

If you or a person you know wants to get involved in this therapy, talk to your healthcare provider and understand if this is a better option for you to recover.

Precautions After Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is an important treatment against cancer. It involves the use of medications that help rid the body of cancerous cells. Although the treatment is very effective, the disadvantage of it is that it also damages the healthy tissues. Most chemotherapy drugs fail to distinguish between cancer and normal cells. Chemotherapy kills the cancer cells all over the body, along with killing the normal healthy cells, thereby suppressing the immune system. This suppression in the immune system makes the person undergoing chemotherapy susceptible to other infections, side effects and certain other complications.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is associated with a variety of side effects and complications. Side effects present themselves differently in different people. Some may have mild side effects of the treatment, while some may have severe. The most common side effects associated with chemotherapy are nausea and vomiting, anemia, fatigue, depression, hair loss, infections, and mouth sores. It increases the risk of infections, bleeding etc. and it is very important for you to take care of yourself. This includes mouth care routine, appetite changes, managing nausea and vomiting etc.

These few precautionary measures will help you deal with the post-chemotherapy issues, boost your immunity, and make your life better and simpler at the same time.

Managing nausea and vomiting

Managing nausea and vomiting

Nausea and vomiting is the most common side effect associated with chemotherapy. Antiemetics, which are anti-nausea drugs, can be taken to prevent nausea. They block the path of the nerve impulse from the blood and stomach, to the vomiting centre located in the brain. Avoiding foods with strong odour may help prevent nausea and vomiting. Consumption of hot, spicy, fatty and greasy foods etc. if avoided, will be beneficial for health.

Washing your hands

Hand Wash

As most infections are spread by unclean hands, it is important to wash them to prevent the spreading of infection. Since the body is weak from a recent chemotherapy, washing hands frequently may help reduce risk of infections. It is equally essential to keep the surrounding around you clean.

Maintaining a well balanced and healthy diet

Chemotherapeutic drugs often lead to loss of appetite in patients, leading to subsequent weight loss. Maintaining a healthy diet can help you get back on track to a good appetite. Planning a daily menu in advance can guarantee that.

Make sure the diet is rich in calories and protein. Since proteins are essentially the building blocks of the tissues, it helps in faster recovery of immune function. Increase sodium and potassium in the diet if you are suffering from diarrhea. Plenty of fluids should be consumed.

Healthy Diet

Since chemotherapy also causes the mouth to go dry and result in difficulty in swallowing, intake of soft and small food items can be help reduce swallowing issues. 5-6 small meals per day is helpful, since it increases the intake of protein and calories. Follow good mouth practice after every meal to avoid infections.

Mouth care

Brush your teeth and take care of your gums after every small or large meal you eat. Chemotherapy results in dry mouth and can cause sores. This can lead to accumulation of bacteria in the gums, which in turn leads to infections. Taking good care of your mouth is important. Brush your teeth and gums using soft brushes. Avoid using mouth wash that contains alcohol. Using lip care products can avoid dry and cracked lips. Avoid eating foods having too much sugar.

Mouth Care

If dentures or braces are being used, you should make sure they are thoroughly cleaned twice a day by brushing or by soaking dentures in antibacterial solutions. Avoid citrus and tomato products if you have mouth sores. Drink plenty of fluids and juices and eat moist foods and soups in case of a dry mouth. Smoking and alcohol aggravates mouth sores, so it is better to avoid indulging in these habits.

Maintain healthy skin

Dry and cracked skin, another side effect of chemotherapy, is susceptible to breaking and provides abundant sites for an infection to cultivate. Staying hydrated and frequently applying moisturizer or lotion on the skin restores moisture to the skin cells and prevents it from drying and cracking. Scratching, biting or tearing of cuticles, all lead to same result and hence, precautions should be taken to avoid them and decrease the risk of infections.

Gently patting the skin instead of rubbing it vigorously is a better way to ensure the skin is not dry. Wear loose, cotton clothing to avoid skin irritation. Chlorine makes skin matters worse, so swimming should be avoided.

Chemotherapy also brings about changes in the nails, the most common of which is hyperpigmentation. These changes can be managed by taking certain precautions like properly trimming and keeping nails clean. Gloves should be worn when gardening or working to prevent damage and minimize the risk of infections.

No contact with people who are ill

No contact

Chemotherapy suppresses the immune system by causing damage to the normal, fighting tissues and cells. This suppression of immune system makes the person highly susceptible to the onset of several infections. So, it is important for you to avoid contact with people suffering from cold, flu, or any contagious diseases. It is also advisable to steer clear of people recently administered with live vaccines.

Coping with changes in memory and thinking

Cancer related cognitive impairment or commonly called cancer fog, is difficulty in concentrating, thinking and remembering things, yet another side effect of chemotherapy. Fatigue, sleep problems, emotional issues like depression or stress, can also be caused by chemotherapy. Though these issues resolve over time, many people experience them for a long period of time.

In such cases, it is important to discuss these issues with your partner, family or even a counsellor. Get plenty of sleep as it helps in strengthening memory and concentration. Keep a track of appointments, birthdays etc. by writing them down in a diary. Writing down anything you need to remember can be helpful. Light exercise and indulging in tasks like crosswords or puzzles may keep the mind active and help cope with the struggle.

Avoid accidents and injuries

Injuries like cuts, bleeding, open wounds etc. increase the risk of infection exponentially. If there is any injury like a cut or a scrape, make sure to wash the injury thoroughly with warm water and an antiseptic. The cleaner the area, the less risk of an infection. To prevent them, you can always wear gloves while handling sharp equipment and while gardening. Be extremely careful while using razor or sharp objects. Be careful with pets. Playing rough with them might result in scratches and bites which can get infected.

Maintain a healthy weight

Losing or gaining weight during chemotherapy treatment is a natural occurrence. However, it is always important to maintain a healthy weight. If you need to increase your weight, you can. With the help of your doctor, devise a diet plan that increases the total intake of carbohydrates and proteins that can help the body get stronger. This can help in coming up with ideas and ways to make the food more appealing. This can also help reduce the nausea at the sight of food and increase appetite.

Healthy Weight

If you want to lose weight, you can follow a light exercise regime that will also help your body recuperate by being active. Limit the calorie intake and balance it with exercise. Take it slowly so that you don’t stress yourself.

Cancer and chemotherapy have known to take a toll on a person. Chemotherapy is experienced differently by different individuals. Side effects of different chemotherapeutic drugs are experienced differently too. However, with the advancements in treatment, taking precautionary measures against these side effects post-chemotherapy has become easier.

Talking to a partner, family members or a support group, makes it easier to cope with the gruelling chemotherapy. Taking these precautions post-chemotherapy, may help you in adjusting to the changes and can assist you to lead a considerably easy life. Be sure to talk to your doctor; it might help come up with necessary plans and routine changes to help you cope better.

10 Kidney Damaging Habits You Should Know

Kidneys are a pair of small, fist-sized organs resembling beans in shape. They are present one on each side of the spinal cord. The main function of kidneys is to filter waste and excess fluids and maintain the levels of electrolytes and fluid balance in the body. Healthy kidneys are vital in normal functioning of the body. Kidneys filter blood and excrete toxins from the body via urine.

kidney

Damage to kidneys can interrupt their ability to filter blood and fluids and excrete the toxins. Accumulation of these fluids and toxins can lead to kidney failure. Certain habits and lifestyle changes cause damage to the kidneys. Don’t you want to know what these habits are?

These are ten kidney damaging habits you should know:

1. Smoking

smoking

One of the main causes of kidney disease is high blood pressure. Smoking interferes with the medicines taken for regulating blood pressure. It also leads to higher excretion of albumin in urine and lower levels of creatinin, suggesting early stages of abnormal functioning of kidneys. Smoking also interferes with the blood flow to kidneys as it narrows the blood vessels in kidneys and damages them.

2. Excessive sugar intake

Excessive sugar intake

Sugar levels above 180 mg/dl results in kidneys expelling sugar in the urine. In diabetic conditions, excess sugar can cause kidney damage. High sugar levels damage the blood vessels in kidneys resulting in their inefficiency to work properly. This can lead to high sugar levels in urine and retention of water and salt, and accumulation of waste materials. Indulging in sweets too often should be avoided.

3. High sodium foods

Consumption of food containing high salt, elevates sodium levels in the bloodstream leading to imbalance. Too much salt affects the ability of the kidneys to remove water. High water retention and consequent strain on kidneys, result in high blood pressure which can lead to chronic kidney disease.

High sodium foods

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for sodium is 2-2.3 g/day. Consuming more than the recommended value can cause elevated blood pressure. Avoid eating salty foods and meat products such as ham, sausages, bacon, anchovies etc. Cutting down on cottage cheese, buttermilk, canned beans and pizza will also be beneficial. Alternative to these food products are milk, egg, fresh or frozen fish, beef, lamb etc.

4. Sedentary lifestyle

Little to no physical activity can cause damage to kidneys. Physical activity improves blood pressure and maintains glucose metabolism. Both of these factors are essential for good health of kidneys. Sitting still for a long period of time with no physical activity can affect the blood pressure and can put stress on the kidneys and eventually lead to damaging them. Sitting for more than 7-10 hours a day is bad for health. Routine exercise, for about 2-4 hours a day, can benefit in reducing the risk of any damage to kidneys.

5. Excess use of painkillers

Excess use of painkillers

Pain medications such as NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) reduce blood flow to the kidneys. Pain medications may provide relief from the pain but they also possess health risk such as damage to kidneys, fluid retention and increase in blood pressure. Long term intake of painkillers can cause irreversible kidney damage and chronic kidney failure. These medications should only be taken as per prescribed dosage.

6. Inadequate water intake

Low water intake is also one of the main reasons for the development of kidney stones. Dehydration is also one of major causes for kidney diseases. Adequate amount of water consumed, helps kidneys excrete sodium and toxins from the body, thereby rendering it healthy. A total of 2-3 liters of water or fluids should be consumed per day to prevent kidney stones and other damages to kidneys.

7. High protein diet

Reports have shown that a high protein diet can increase the progression of kidney damage in patients already suffering from kidney disease. High protein consumption can also lead to acidosis and harm the kidneys. A well balanced diet with vegetables can be consumed to avoid the damage. Recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein in adults is 0.8 g/kg/day. Limiting protein in the diet can help in decreasing the loss of kidney function. Meat, dairy products and nuts should be avoided to decrease the protein intake.

8. High alcohol consumption

High alcohol consumption

Alcohol, even in small amounts, can have a negative impact on kidneys’ functioning. Alcohol causes dehydration, putting a strain on the kidneys to maintain the water level during this time. Excessive alcohol intake can also lead to vomiting and impaired pH levels, resulting in strain on the kidneys. Intoxication also interferes with kidneys’ function to filter blood and fluids, thus impairing their normal function. Excess alcohol can cause a strain on kidneys for prolonged period of time, resulting in kidney damage. People who drink and smoke have a higher chance of kidney diseases.

9. Full bladder for a long time

Full bladder for an extended period of time can result in too much pressure on the kidneys and may increase the risk of infection or kidney damage. Holding it in for too long results in the kidneys retaining toxins and fluids that harm them.

10. Sleep deprivation

Sleep deprivation

A study reports that, kidney function is regulated by the sleep-wake cycle. Less amount of sleep is directly proportional to a faster decline in kidney function. Missing out on sleep can disturb the functioning of kidneys. Less than 6.5 hours of sleep daily can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Getting enough sleep for about 7-8 hours a night can help in maintaining normal kidney function and decreasing the risk and prevention of CKD.

Kidney damage occurs gradually over a period of time. The main causes are these habits and improper lifestyle choices. Little changes in these lifestyle choices can help slow the progression of kidney damage and help prevent severe kidney disorders. Drinking sufficient water, following a healthy well balanced diet, getting proper sleep, routine exercise etc. are certain factors that can be regulated and managed properly to avoid health complications. Remember, healthy kidneys help in maintaining a healthy body. So we need to take care of kidneys to stay healthy.

What is Salt Room Therapy?

Salt room therapy is one of the newer alternative therapies that is rapidly gaining popularity for all the right reasons. It is based on the principle that direct exposure to the right amount of salt helps in rejuvenating all the body tissues. It is part of dry salt therapy and has been used successfully to treat several disorders.

Salt room

Salt room therapy is inspired by an ancient form of therapy that originated in Poland. People used to visit caves that were known to have a good amount of salt deposits. Exposure to salt helped them get rid of several ailments. There are several spas and health resorts all over Europe, America and Asia offering salt room therapy.

Health Benefits of Salt Room Therapy for Patients

Some of the health benefits of salt room therapy are mentioned below:

Respiratory System:

Salt room therapy is said to be the most beneficial, for treatment of respiratory disorders. Patients suffering from asthma, COPD, asbestosis, experienced considerable improvement in their symptoms after regular sessions of salt room therapy.

Respiratory System

Exposure to dry air laced with salt helps in drying up the unhealthy secretions of lungs and bronchial tubes. This is one of the major benefits of salt room therapy for lung ailments.

Nervous System:

Salt room therapy is known to have a rejuvenating effect on tired and fatigue ridden nerves. Many people who need a break from their daily grind opt for a session of salt room therapy and come back refreshed.

Nervous System

Salt particles help in stimulating nerves to conduct electrical impulses better and leave the patient feeling energetic. Salt room therapy is also known to have beneficial effects in curbing headaches of nervous origin, migraine, spinal nerve disorders etc.

Mental Health:

Exposure to salt and minerals stimulates energy levels and also enhances blood circulation to all body tissues. This helps in improving cerebral circulation and helps in maintaining healthier brain cells.

Patients battling depression have experienced great benefits from regular salt room sessions. Anxiety, sleep disorders, mood disorders are also known to benefit from this therapy.

Skin and Hair:

It is said that salt helps in balancing the moisture levels of skin. People undergoing salt room therapy get their skin directly exposed to salt. This allows the salt particles to repair dead and damaged skin and help to retain the required amount of moisture.

Skin and Hair

Health conditions like psoriasis, eczema, dermatitis respond very well to salt room therapy. Salt has an anti bacterial effect which makes it an efficient cure for skin infections. Aside from skin disorders, salt therapy also helps in cleansing the skin and making it healthier. People who opted for salt room therapy as part of rejuvenation, developed healthy, glowing and soft skin.

Salt is also known to have a beneficial effect on one’s immune system. It helps to control levels of IgE and thus helps in battling allergic responses. Salt is a known anti inflammatory agent. Therefore, salt therapy is also helpful for patients suffering from joint disorders, auto immune disorders etc.

Salt Room Therapy for Healthy People

Other than helping to treat several health disorders, salt room therapy is also known to provide a rejuvenating and relaxing experience. Many people who want a break from their daily grind, indulge in salt room therapy regularly. People have reported feeling fresh and more energetic by spending time in a salt room on a regular basis. Salt room therapy helps to get rid of mental stress, tired nerves, muscular soreness, which has become part of the daily fast paced life most people lead.

What is a Salt Room?

Salt room therapy is conducted in artificially built salt caves. Temperature controlled rooms are built in an attempt to simulate a sea side experience, minus the humidity. Floor of these rooms is layered with salt and salt is also introduced in the room through air vents. Due to absence of humidity, patients can can experience the benefit of dry salt therapy. The salt is usually imported from ancient caves in Poland known for their rich salt deposits or from Himalayas. The salt is then processed and refined before using it for therapy sessions.

A halogenerator is used in most of the spas offering salt room therapy. This device filters and spreads salt evenly into the salt rooms during therapy sessions. People can enjoy a relaxing session of dry salt therapy in one of these rooms for a time span of anywhere between 25-45 minutes. Salt therapy does not make use of chemicals, steroids or any artificial preparations. This makes is 100% safe with little possibility of side effects.

Limitations of Salt Room Therapy

Salt room therapy has proven to be beneficial since ancient times. People have been benefiting from it since as early as the 1800s. However, no scientific or medical experiment has been conducted to prove its efficacy. Therefore, this therapy has not received adequate recognition.

There is no documented evidence of salt therapy proving to be beneficial in every patient. The therapy cannot replace medical or surgical treatment completely. It has to be used in conjunction with main stream treatment. While ancient proofs and documents exist about how salt therapy was discovered and used, there is no proof of any recent study being done for the same.

Contraindications of Salt Room Therapy

While salt room therapy is impressing one and all across the globe, it may not be helpful for everyone. Certain health conditions may contradict the use of salt room therapy.

Pregnant women should not undergo this therapy; especially if they have been battling blood pressure issues. It is also inadvisable for patients with cardiac disorders to opt for this therapy. While salt room therapy has proven to be beneficial in case of respiratory ailments, it should be avoided during acute exacerbations of symptoms. Patients who have recently suffered from burn injuries, should also refrain from undergoing salt room therapy as it may irritate the skin.

Salt room therapy should be chosen as a treatment method, only if it has been approved by a qualified physician. This form of therapy is widely available in Europe, America and parts of Asia.

Eye Care Doesn’t Have To Be Hard. Read These 7 Tips

A report from the Times of India early this month announced that India will organize the largest eye care awareness campaign in Navi Mumbai. Called Nanhe Nayan, it will aim at checking the eye sight of close to 60,000 school children. Eye experts will be called in for the examination.

Photo: www.prweb.com
Photo: www.prweb.com

With the country paying attention to the needs of eye care, we decided to call for attention to the issue too. With our changes in lifestyle, sleeping patters, work environment and diet, the eye is suffering. You may not realize the importance of some of these things and the difference they make to your eye sight. But with every change, our eye is struggling to keep up. To help out, here is a list of things that change the way you look, literally.  Continue reading “Eye Care Doesn’t Have To Be Hard. Read These 7 Tips”

What is Seeding and its Benefits for C-Section Babies?

“We can’t restore them 100 per cent, which isn’t surprising when you consider how long a baby is exposed to the vaginal microbes during labor, but there might be a window very early on after birth when we can help balance the immune system,” said New York University’s Associate Professor in Medicine, Dr. Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello.

There is a new trend called ‘seeding’ that’s persistent throughout Australia (and probably soon to be popularized all over the globe) where newborn babies birthed via C-section or caesarean are thoroughly applied their mother’s (sterile) vaginal fluid. The process involves applying the fluid on the baby’s body including face and mouth using a swab.

seeding-c-section Continue reading “What is Seeding and its Benefits for C-Section Babies?”

Get Ready for Monsoon – Useful Tips for You

It is the time for monsoons. If you’re a rainy season person then you might be looking forward to tucking in with a hot cuppa while in bed as it thunders and storms outside or going for a long walk with the drizzle for company. But this change of weather brings with it a lot of cause for concern.

But before you slip into your rain wear and pick the next hike in the mountains, watch out for a few things. The monsoon looks like a fun season, but it brings with it the danger of a lot of diseases and health effects. There is a higher risk of allergies and infections and the spread of water-borne diseases is much higher. Also, since there is minimum sunlight, bacteria and viruses thrive in this weather, attacking our immune system.rain5

So just at the onset of the monsoons, we thought we would prepare a short checklist of things that you need to go through to make sure you’re weather ready. Right from your diet, clothing and exercise your routine would need to be modified slightly to accommodate the  season of the rains. Continue reading “Get Ready for Monsoon – Useful Tips for You”

Don’t Waste Time! Know These Facts About Yoga

yoga_1

The excitement that Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s participation brought about in creating two Guinness Book World Records for India, one for largest number of people practicing Yoga simultaneously and the largest number of people of different nationalities coming together to perform the exercise, has turned attention back to India’s ancient form of training of the mind and the body.  International Yoga Day was declared by the United Nations of June 21, with close to 36,000 people performed asanas with the prime minister.

If you read the reports or saw the coverage and felt like pulling out your yoga pants or checking the price of a yoga mat online, let’s take a moment to understand this effective form of exercise. Deemed as one of the more balanced training vitalizing the spiritual, religious, physical and mental condition of the body. It may not be taken lightly. So before we jump onto the bandwagon, let us look at what we know about yoga, and the more important do’s and don’t’s.

What you need to know:

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  • Yoga is not just a physical exercise, but it improves muscles and skeleton structure of the body and does wonders for your cardiovascular system
  • It is the purest form of meditation, and practise it regularly and notice yourself becoming calmer, reducing levels of stress, hypertension and many lifestyle related diseases
  •  If you’ve suffered from mild attacks of anxiety or depression, you have naturally been recommended Yoga. It is a prescribed cure for improving mental stability and battling depression
  • Ditto for insomniacs; Yoga will relax the mind, clear the head and will help you sleep better
  • You’ll never have looked better. Yoga clears up your skin, improves your poster and sculpts and tightens your muscles. Like mentioned before, Yoga is not to be taken lightly. An exercise that lends so much to your system needs to have a set of guidelines. So before you start practicing Yoga at home or sign up for the next class nearby, browse through these important do’s and don’t’s.Do’s: 
  • Drink lots of water daily: If you’re not in the habit of hydrating yourself, make one of out it now. Yoga looks like it’s a breeze, but regulars will tell you how taxing asanas can be. You need plenty of water to avoid cramping and exhaustion.
  • Invest in a Yoga mat: If you plan to take Yoga seriously, buy a mat. The thickness and size will save you back pain. Never practise on the floor directly. If you don’t have a mat, carry a light mattress, sheet or perform on carpeted floor.
  • Be an early bird:  Join an early morning batch or wake up an hour earlier to your schedule to do Yoga. The benefits of waking up early to an hour of Yoga are endless. It is a healthy start to the day when your mind is at its most peaceful and calm state. Perfect for Yoga.

    If you're a beginner, join a class or perform Yoga under supervision
    If you’re a beginner, join a class or perform Yoga under supervision
  • Breathe: Yoga helps you breathe better. Throughout the exercise, breathe through your nose. Make it a habit, and it will help you breathe easy otherwise as well.
  • Beginners, join a class: For people who have not practised Yoga before, it is advised to join a class or hire a trainer. Yoga is more complicated than it looks, and maintaining the right poster, stretching the correct limbs and not overdoing it is of extreme importance.

Don’t’s:

  • Food woes: Never practice on a full stomach. Yoga must be performed on an empty to light stomach.
  • Women, pay attention to your cycle: Skip the class when you’re on your menstrual cycle. Pregnant women should also keep away from Yoga.
  • Patients stay away: If you’ve just been through a surgery or an accident, consult a physician before you resume Yoga. Your body may not be in the right state to start stretching yet, and you may end up doing more harm than good.
  • Take thirty: Wait for twenty minutes to half an hour before you eat or drink anything. Your body has been through an intense workout. Give it time to cool off.
  • Do what you can: If you’re a beginner, take it easy. If you can’t strike a particularly tricky asana, try it later but don’t push yourself too hard. You’ll end up pulling a muscle instead. If something hurts, stop. It is your body telling you that it can’t take it.

    Yoga is not easy; if something aches, back off. It's your body's way of telling you it's in pain
    Yoga is not easy; if something aches, back off. It’s your body’s way of telling you it’s in pain
  • Keep calm and carry on: You’re not going to see results in one or two sessions. But continue for a few weeks and you’ll start feeling the difference. If the first few classes bore you out, (yes, it’s a slow exercise and there’s no music) stick it out. You’ll not regret it.

Under the practised care of an expert, Yoga will elevate your exercise experience. So if you’re a beginner, an expert or just interested to give it a shot, there’s no better time than now. The world is, literally at its feet. So take a deep breath and begin.